The Historic Ensemble of Orchha- Into a New Dynasty

Hello guys. Waiting for long? I know that you were waiting anxiously for the exciting post I told I will publish soon. I don’t know whether it’s this post which will be the mind-blowing experience you were waiting for. But, this may stand a feet apart from the one I have been planning for you. Let me all welcome you to the first post of February on this blog. By the way, hope you enjoyed reading my ideas and event organising strategies for the proposed qualifier tournament for the ICC T20 World Cup 2021. We’ll discuss in detail about that at the end of the post when we leave some space aside for sport. I have talked about the architecture of many dynasties in this blog. It started with the Mughal architecture of Fatehpur Sikri or the Chalukya architecture of  Badami- Pattadakal- Aihole. Either of the two were the subject of my first post on Indian architecture.Then the focus shifted to the Pallava architecture through the Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram and the Chola architecture through the temples of Thanjavur, Gangaikonda Cholapuram and Darasuram. I also gave a brief introduction about the Vijayanagara architecture by talking about my Lepakshi trip. Well, that’s not the real Vijayanagara architecture. Hampi is still waiting at the door. I’m waiting for the right occasion to start that series.  Apart from these, I have also experienced the Hoysala style of architecture by visiting the monuments of Belur, Halebid and Somanathapura. Today, however, I thought of going North from where we stopped last time i.e Tamil Nadu. I’m going to take you on a tour to an ancient city which is an example of the Bundela style of architecture- Orchha.

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Orchha is a historical town in the Niwari district of Madhya Pradesh, India with a total population of around 12,000 inhabitants. The town encompasses a very dense collection of the historical buildings, gardens and traditional housings. It was the seat of an eponymous former princely state of central India, in the Bundelkhand region. The historical settlement derived its name from the phrase ‘Ondo chhe’ meaning ‘low’ or ‘hidden’. The site was indeed bowl-like, buffered by bluffs and forests, lying on the Betwa River. Orchha was founded in the 16th century by the Bundela chief Rudra Pratap Singh, who became the first King of Orchha. The son of Rudra Pratap Singh, Bharti Chand (r.1531-1554), shifted the capital from Garh Kundar to Orchha, because the site was a better place to fortify against the growing Mughal pressure. After almost a decade of mayhem, Bir Singh Deo (r.1605-1627) became the king of Orchha who was perhaps the greatest of the Bundela Kings of Orchha. Bir Singh Deo became closely affiliated with the Mughal heir prince Salim. On suggestion of the latter, he ambushed and murdered Akbar’s closest counsellor Abu’ Fazal in 1602. Although Akbar’s army invaded Orchha the same year, and Bir Singh Deo had to flee, his vicious act was rewarded three years later, with the ascension of Prince Salim to the Mughal throne as Jehangir. Jehangir installed Bir Singh Deo as king of Orchha. Bir Singh Deo was a great builder, not only in Orchha, but he also constructed the Forts of Datia and Jhansi, and temples in Mathura and Varanasi which spread the Bundeli architectural styles to the various parts of North India. Later Hamir Singh, who ruled from 1848 to 1874, was elevated to the rank of Maharaja in 1865. Maharaja Pratap Singh (born 1854, died 1930), who succeeded to the throne in 1874, devoted himself entirely to the development of his state, himself designing most of the engineering and irrigation works that were executed during his reign in Orchha. Even though the seat of power changed frequently in Orchha, the city flourished and grew under the leadership of Bundeli kings and became the inception point for a new style of architecture known as the Bundeli architectural style. The Chaturbhuj Temple was built during the reign of Emperor Akbar, by the Queen of Orchha Ganesh Kunwar (गणेश कुँवर), while Raj Mandir was built by ‘Raja Madhukar Shah’ during his reign, 1554 to 1591.

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On a seasonal island on the bank of the Betwa River, which has been surrounded by a battlement wall, stands a huge palace-fort. The fort consists of several connected buildings erected at different times, the most noteworthy of which is the Raja Mahal. The Ram Raja Temple is built on a square base and has an almost entirely plain exterior, relieved by projecting windows and a line of delicate domes along the summit. The Jahangir Mahal is built on a rectangular base and is relieved by a circular tower at each corner surmounted by a dome, while two lines of graceful balconies supported on brackets mark the central storeys. The roof is crowned by eight large fluted domes, with smaller domes between them, connected by an ornamental balustrade. The Jahangir Mahal is considered to be a singularly beautiful specimen of Mughal architecture. A point worth mentioning here is that the mother for Jahangir was also a Rajput, Jodha. It is with this in mind that the Rajput king of Orchha had built the Jahangir Mahal. There is a spectacular light and sound show in the evening hours in the Jahangir Mahal. The show displays the history of the city of Orchha and the Jahangir Mahal. Chaturbhuj Temple is an old temple from the 9th century, and is noted for having one of the tallest Vimana among Hindu temples standing at 344 feet. The Uth Khana (Camel Shelter) where the King’s camels were stationed is right next to the fort and is a must-see. Tourists can also climb on the roof of the Uth Khana and get a fantastic view of Orchha town. The ruins behind the fort complex are an even greater sight. It makes a tourist travel back in time and is an integral part of a visit to Orchha. It houses the residences of various military officers, ministers (housing, roads), gunpowder factory, etc. Numerous cenotaphs or chhatris dot the vicinity of the fort and the Betwa river. Elsewhere about the town there is an unusual variety of temples and tombs, including the Chaturbhuj temple, which is built on a vast platform of stone. The more unguarded and neglected of these buildings are popular hangouts for tropical bees, wasps, and other such excitable stinging creatures.

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The Orchha Fort complex, which houses a large number of ancient monuments consisting of the fort, palaces, temple, and other edifices. The fort and other structures within it were built by the Bundela Rajputs starting from the early 16th century by King Rudra Pratap Singh of the Orchha State and others who followed him. The fort complex, which is accessed from an arched causeway, leads to a large gateway. This is followed by a large quadrangular open yard surrounded by palaces. These are Raja Mahal or Raja Mandir, Sheesh Mahal, Jahangir Mahal, a temple, gardens and pavilions. The battlements of the fort have ornamentation. Notable architectural features in the fort complex are projected balconies, open flat areas and decorated latticed windows. The fort was built following the founding of the Orchha State in 1501 AD by Rudra Pratap Singh (r. 1501–1531), a Bundela Rajput. The palaces and temples within the fort complex were built over a period of time by successive Maharajas of the Orchha State. Of these, the Raja Mandir or Raja Mahal was built by Madhukar Shah who ruled from 1554 to 1591. Jahangir Mahal and Sawan Bhadon Mahal were built during the reign of Vir Singh Deo (r. 1605–1627). The features of “pepper pots and domes” seen in the fort complex are believed to have inspired Lutyens in the architecture of the structures which he built in New Delhi. The fort walls have battlements, which have ornamentation.

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The Raja Mahal (King’s Palace), where the kings and the queens had resided till it was abandoned in 1783, was built in the early part of 16th century. Its exterior is simple without any embellishments but the interior chambers of the palace are elaborately royal in its architectural design, decorated with murals of social and religious themes of gods, mythical animals, and people. In the upper floor of the palace, there are traces of mirrors in the ceilings and walls. Its windows, arcaded passages, and layout plan are designed in such a way that the “sunlight and shadow create areas of different moods and temperatures throughout the day”. The interior walls of the Mahal have murals of Lord Vishnu. The Mahal has several secret passages. A part of this Mahal was converted into a temple and named Rama Raja Temple in honour of the god Rama. There is legend associated with naming it as a temple. According to a local legend, the temple was built following Rani Ganeshkuwari, the queen getting a “dream visitation” by Lord Rama directing her to build a temple for Him; while Madhukar Shah was a devotee of Krishna, his wife’s dedication was to Rama. Following this, a new temple known as the Chaturbuj Temple was approved to be built, and the queen went to Ayodhya to obtain an image of Lord Rama that was to be enshrined in her new temple. When she came back from Ayodhya with the image of Rama, initially she kept the idol in her palace as the Chaturbuj Temple was still under construction. She was, however, unaware of an injunction that the image to be deified in a temple could not be kept in a palace. Once the temple construction was completed and the idol of the lord had to be moved for installation at the Chatrubhuj Temple, it refused to be shifted from the palace. Hence, instead of the Chaturbhuj Temple, the Rama’s idol remained in the palace whereas the Chaturbhuj Temple remained without an idol in its sanctum. As Rama was worshipped in the palace, part of the palace was converted into the Rama Raja Temple; it is the only shrine in the country where Rama is worshipped as a King.The temple is guarded by a police force and the deity, Lord Rama, is considered as the king and is given a gun salute of honour every day.

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Sheesh Mahal is flanked on either side by the Raja Mahal and the Jahangir Mahal. This has royal accommodation, which was built for king Udait Singh. It has now been converted into a hotel. The interior of this edifice consists of a huge impressive hall with high ceiling, which is the dining hall. Staying in two of its royal suites on the upper floor, which provide scenic views of the town, gives the guest a feeling of royalty.

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Jahangir MahalCitadel of JahangirOrchha PalaceMahal-e-Jahangir OrchhaJahangir Citadel is a citadel and garrison located in the town. The establishment of the Jahangir Mahal dates back to the 17th century A.D. when the ruler of the region Vir Singh Deo built the structure as a symbol of warm reception of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir, during the latter’s first visit to the city. The entrance of the Jahangir Mahal, Orchha is marked by an artistic and traditional gateway. The front wall of the structure faces to the east and is covered with turquoise tiles. Jahangir Mahal is a three-storied structure that is marked by stylishly hanging balconies, porches, and apartments. The domes of the Jahangir Mahal, were built according to Timurid customs; its grand Iwans are large enough to accommodate the entry of war elephants, and its high position over the landscape allowed cannons superior range. Akbar dispatched his most influential son, prince Jahangir, Abdul Hasan Asaf Khan and Abu’l-Fazl ibn Mubarak to capture the city of Orchha, which was considered the center of the revolt. Jahangir arrived with a force of twelve thousand, and after many ferocious encounters and battles, subdued the kingdom of Bundela. Its rebellious ruler, Vir Singh Deo, surrendered to young Jahangir and agreed never to break an alliance with Akbar. Vir Singh Deo also relinquished control of over five thousand Bundela infantry and a thousand cavalry, weakening himself militarily. Vir Singh Deo later killed Abu’l-Fazl ibn Mubarak in the year 1602, during Jahangir’s succession to the Mughal throne, and remained a fugitive until his death. On 4 October 1635, the 16-year-old Aurangzeb raised the Mughal flag on the highest terrace of the Jahangir Mahal. After the Mughals won the Bundela War in 1635, Devi Singh was installed as the new administrator, and after the deaths of the rebel Jhujhar Singh and the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, was declared the sovereign of Bundela.

Phool Bagh Orchha

Phool Bagh is an elegantly laid out garden in the fort complex which has a line of water fountains that terminates in a “palace-pavilion” which has eight pillars. Below this garden is an underground structure that was used by royalty as a cool summer retreat. This cooling system consists of water ventilation system that is linked to an underground palace with “Chandan Katora”, which is in the shape of a bowl from where fountains of droplets trickle through the roof creating rainfall.

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Chaturbhuj Temple, dedicated to Vishnu, is located in the Orccha town, just outside the limits of the Orchha Fort complex, to the south of the Rama Raja Temple.. The name Chaturbhuj is where ‘chatur’ meaning “four” and ‘bhuj’ meaning “arms” which literally translates to “one who has four arms” and refers to Rama an avatar of Vishnu. The temple has a complex multi-storied structural view which is a blend of temple, fort and palace architectural features. The temple was originally built to deify an image of Rama, as the chief deity, which however was installed in the Rama Raja Temple inside the Orchha Fort complex. At present an image of Radha Krishna is worshiped in the temple. The temple is noted for having one of the tallest Vimana among Hindu temples standing at 344 feet. The temple was constructed by the Bundela Rajputs of the kingdom of Orchha. Its construction was begun by Madhukar Shah and completed by his son, Vir Singh Deo in the early 16th century. Madhukar Shah built the temple for his wife, Rani Ganeshkuwari. According to a local legend, the temple was built after the queen had a “dream visitation” by Lord Rama directing her to build a temple for Him; while Madhukar Shah was a devotee of Krishna, his wife’s dedication was to Rama. Following the approval to build the Chaturbhuja Temple, the queen went to Ayodhya to obtain an image of Lord Rama that was to be enshrined in her new temple. When she came back from Ayodhya with the image of Rama, initially she kept the idol in her palace, called Rani Mahal, as the Chaturbhuj Temple was still under construction. She was, however, unaware of an injunction that the image to be deified in a temple could not be kept in a palace. Once the temple construction was completed and the idol of the lord had to be moved for installation at the Chatrubhuj Temple, it refused to be shifted from the palace. Hence, instead of the Chaturbuj temple, the Rama’s idol remained in the palace whereas the Chaturbhuj Temple remained without an idol in its sanctum. As Rama was worshiped in the palace it was converted into the Ram Raja Temple; it is the only shrine in the country where Rama is worshiped as a king. The management of the temple on a day-to-day basis is the responsibility of the Ram Raja Trust. However, the conservation of the temple structure itself is under the control of the State Archaeology Department.

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The Chaturbhuj temple has tall spires in the shape of pine cones built atop a high platform of 4.5 metres (15 ft) height. The overall height of the temple is 105 metres (344 ft) high and its layout is compared to that of a Basilica and planned to resemble the four arms of Vishnu for whom it was built. The imposing view of the temple is that of multi-storied palace with arcaded openings, a very large entrance, a large central tower and fortifications. The climb to the temple facade involves climbing steep and narrow steps numbering 67, each of about 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) height, forming a winding stairway. The interior has many halls and the main hall or mandapa of the temple is built in the shape of a cross or cruciform and is stated to be a mix of Māru-Gurjara architecture, and it is at right angles to the vestibule, of identical layout on either side. The temple’s exterior is richly ornamented with lotus symbols. The building displays a blend of religious and secular styles taken from temple and fort architecture. The temple faces east and is located on an axis with the nearby Ram Mandir, which is inside Orccha Fort complex. However, there is not much ornamentation in the interior part of the temple. The ceiling of the central dome, which has several kiosks, is covered with bloomed lotuses. The exterior architectural features include “petaled stone moldings, painted floral and geometric designs, cornices supported on lotus bud pendantive brackets, jewelled stone girdles, false balcony projections”. It is said that the towers of the temple, when built, had been covered with gold plating which over the years has been pilfered. The roof of the temple is accessible from where one can see the scenic views of the Orccha town, the winding Betwa River, the Sawan Bhadon, the Rama Raja Temple and the imposing Laxmi Narayan temple some distance away.

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Lakshmi Narayan Temple is a huge temple , which was built by Vir Singh Deo, in 1622. This temple displays a unique mixture of temple and fort. It also has been renovated once in 1793 by Prithvi Singh. The temple is dedicated to Goddess Lakshmi, who is the Hindu goddess of wealth. The altar of this temple is constructed in the shape of a yoni or vulva while its inner sanctum is similar to a Tantrik cult. The structural of this temple is a rectangular one with four multi-faced projecting bastions at its four corners. It has been built with lime mortar and bricks, with slots for cannons used during the wars. Its main attractions are the ancient mural wall paintings present in the interior of this temple, which reflect a mix of Mughal and Bundela painting styles. The themes of this painting have been taken from Sage Valmiki’s, Rama Charitra Manas as well as from  India’s first battle for Independence fought in 1857. The carved designs of the temple have been arranged in a geometrical form and below these designs are vistas from the time of Lord Krishna decorated with animal and flower patterns.

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As the capital of the Bundela dynasty from 1531-1783 CE, Orchha’s monuments, gardens, temples, and murals as an ensemble, represent remarkable evolution in town planning, fortification of settlement, in buildings, garden design and art. The cultural landscape fostered various traditions of myths, ballads, literary and folk arts.

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Criterion (ii): Orchha thrived to be an example and epitome of the Bundela dynasty to showcase their unique architectural style. The local geography aided to the incorporation of the various pragmatic planning principles in the historical town while the individual elements of architecture and gardens in various buildings and houses, borrowed from the several Rajput and Mughal traditions, gave a harmonious visual language to the settlement. In Orchha, the blending of the existing Raj put culture with the invading Mughal culture carne to an exquisite apogee.

The fortification, town planning, the garden design in Orchha evolved into a unique new form with amalgamation of Mughal style of gardens (cf. char bagh), Rajput Fort gardens, Hindu sacred groves and evolved hydrology systems. These gardens were strategically located around area of dense activities to provide relief to the urban fabric and to enhance the views from the high stories of palaces and temples. Thus, Orchha houses a unique ensemble of monuments and sites to understand the organization of the 16th-18th century society in India.

Criterion (iv): Palatine and temple designs of the Bundelas were stylistic innovations in medieval Rajput architecture. Based upon archetypal mandala forms with elements from Sultanate and Mughal architecture, they are unique aesthetic statements. The three palaces, Rani Mahal (now Ram Raja Temple), Raja Mahal, and Jahangir Mahal have a mandala plan, i.e. square subdivided into smaller squares and rectangles with open space in the center leading to highly evolved composition and massing and play of solids and voids. These open courtyards alternating with pavilions at higher stories such that interior open spaces form an inverted pyramid structure, mark the achievement of the Bundeli architectural style, which influenced the later architecture of the whole of Bundelkhand.

In this style the proportions are not only very different from the architecture elsewhere in the region but also imbibes various elements of both Mughal and Rajput architecture. This amalgamation of various styles can be seen in both tangible and intangible practices resulting in the structures like those of cenotaphs of Bundeli rulers, town morphology and rituals which together outline the Outstanding Universal Value of the historic ensemble of Orchha.

Orchha is a living cultural site where the new development has not been too much against the character of the historical township. The cultural landscape survives as a discernible palimpsest, its historic layers still overpowering the new development. Orchha has retained the geomorphological character with evident historical connections between the settlement, the river Betwa and the forest around it. The ensemble of the monuments, gardens and temples have been maintained over years owing to their constant use and maintenance efforts by the community in many cases and the Bundeli architectural style till date, remains the architectural language of the whole settlement.

Orchha, though different chronologically, can be compared to Champaner and Hampi in India and at international level to the City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto in Italy and Angkor in Cambodia. The architecture and settlement planning of Orchha has had a heavy influence from both Rajput and Mughal style. As a smaller kingdom within the center of India Orchha survived often on excellent diplomatic relations with the then neighboring kingdoms or states. This allowed a vast exchange of information and technology for building design, urban planning principles, cultural and agricultural practices.

At international level, Angkor in Cambodia, which is a world heritage site, can be a parallel since both the sites contains several temples, some of which are still functional, hydraulic structures, landscapes as well as the planning principles as a strong response to the geographical context. The sites are very different in scale yet in both the sites, architecture forms a harmonious whole, due to the coherent use of local materials and vernacular techniques leading to a unique architectural style. Both Angkor and Orchha are major sites exemplifying cultural, religious and symbolic values, as well as containing high architectural, archaeological and artistic significance where the population still practice agriculture as their main occupation.

Similarly, in Europe, the City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto in Italy exhibit the unique architectural style developed over time while having its roots in the roman architecture. The Palladian style promoted through the various urban buildings in the same time period as was the Bundeli architecture in Orchha, made great impact on the regional architectural style and spread to England and other European countries. The parallel can be drawn for Orchha where the Bundeli style also though rooted in the Rajput style evolved into something unique which influenced the architecture and garden design principles for the vast region of Bundelkhand in India.

In India, the group of monuments in Hampi and the Champaner-Pavgadh archaeological park have remarkable parallels to the historic ensemble of Orchha in terms of the concentration of temples, monuments, landscape features. Both Hampi and Champaner also showcase the development of a unique architectural style developed from the amalgamation of various styles, like in Orchha where the architectural style took inspiration from other various sources, paving way to development of a unique and eclectic style which is can be only referred to as Bundeli architectural style. Orchha however distinguishes itself by remaining the living site where the town flourished due to its strategic defensive location, its huge religious importance and valor and exemplary diplomacy of the BundeIi ruler of Orchha in the given geo­political environment.

 

In 2006, Orchha’s buildings were being documented by the LIK Team of IIT Roorkee, India. A community radio station, Radio Bundelkhand was launched in Orchha on 23 October 2008. It is an initiative of the Development Alternatives Group. The radio station broadcasts daily programs in the Bundeli dialect and devotes significant amount of its broadcast time to local issues, culture, education and the rich tradition of Bundeli folk music. The station is available on 90.4 MHz. Orccha has been added to the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2019. Now you might have understood the reason why I decided to write about the place.

Nearest Airport to Orchha is Gwalior Airport. Orchha is 250 km and 4 hours drive from Kanpur Airport which is well connected with other metropolitan cities in India. Orchha Railway station is Jhansi-Manikpur section of the North Central Railways. 15 km from Jhansi in Uttar Pradesh, Orchha also lies close to another popular tourist destination, Khajuraho. Tourists who wish to visit Orchha from Khajuraho can catch the morning express which leaves at around 8 or 9 AM. Alternatively, they could also avail the afternoon express which leaves at around 12 or 1 PM. The train journey from Khajuraho is 5 hours and they will ideally have to get off at Jhansi and grab an autorickshaw or Tuk Tuk for Orchha (costs not more than INR 20-40). However, if the train halts at Orchha, they can also get off at the Orchha station and grab an autorickshaw to the temple complex.

Well, that’s all about the small town of Orchha and its historic monuments. Now, to the other interesting segment without which the post wouldn’t be complete- the Sports news from across the globe. Lots of tournaments have been planned for the associate members by the International Cricket Council in the coming months. The fifth out of 21 tri-series which are part of the ICC Cricket World Cup League 2 will commence in Nepal this week and will see the hosts compete with Oman and United States for getting their first points on board. Qatar will host Uganda for a 3 match T20 international series. Uganda will look to carry forward their form from Cricket World Cup Challenge League B while Qatar has already beaten Jersey at home in the previous bilateral series held in the country and will be looking to carry forward their form. Belgium seems to be the busiest associate member as they will be hosting Austria and Romania for 3 matches each, in addition to the two match series against Luxembourg. The groups for the Western Region qualifiers of the Asia Cup has been finalised. Hosts Oman, Qatar, Bahrain and Maldives will compete in Group A while United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Iran will make up Group B. Iran will be making their T20 International debut in the tournament. Hong Kong will be hosting Malaysia for a bilateral series which comprises of 5 T20 internationals. The much awaited draw of the European Regional qualifiers of the 2021 ICC T20 World Cup has took place. The 3 groups would be hosted by Belgium, Finland and Spain and will have 24 teams contrary to 18 in the last tournament. The groups are as follows:

Group A: Bulgaria, Cyprus, France, Israel, Italy, Malta, Norway, Spain ( hosts)

Group B: Finland ( hosts), Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Guernsey, Hungary, Luxembourg, Sweden

Group C: Austria, Belgium ( hosts), Czech Republic, Denmark, Isle of Man, Portugal, Romania, Serbia

The 3 group winners will join Jersey in the regional finals. The 18 teams who participated in the previous qualifier has been retained and will be joined by Malta, Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Luxembourg, Romania and Serbia. The unlucky members to miss out are Croatia, Slovenia, Estonia, Russia and Turkey. Turkey has participated in the Romania Cup where they fielded a second string squad which consisted of 4 players aged above 53. Russia, meanwhile withdrew from the Romania Cup due to the lack of government funding for the game. These two teams can play a bilateral series during the time of European qualifiers which can be hosted by Russia and thus giving the teams to improve their rankings by the next T20 World Cup in 2024. Members of Cricket Russia who are reading this post can contact me for any help in popularising the game in the country. Croatia and Slovenia haven’t been involved in the game for quite a while. A second string Estonia XI took part in a tri-series involving Spain and Malta. These 3 teams can still play a tri-series during the time of the European qualifiers to enhance their stand in the game. Possibly, the Mediterrenean Cricket League, a club-cricket competition hosted by Croatia every year can have an international leg as well which involves these 3 teams. The island of Losinj will host the MCL in June this year. Like the Hellenic Premier League, we can expect an international tournament in Croatia too soon or later. The draw for the European Cricket League T10 also took place. The tournament will be hosted by La Manga Club of Spain and will have 16 clubs competing for the title of Champion of Europe.  Champion clubs of England and Wales, Ireland, Scotland, Netherlands, Spain, Germany, France, Italy, Denmark, Romania, Russia, Belgium, Norway, Sweden, Finland and the second placed team of Netherlands will take part in the tournament. I would support the Russian champions Moscow Foxes in the league, main reason being my wish to see the game improving in the country.

Apart from these, there is nothing much to talk about the football leagues of Europe with no major surprises anywhere. Novak Djokovic winning the Australian Open and the commencement of Maharashtra Open are the highlights in tennis. Well, that’s all I have for the day. Hope you all enjoyed the post. I’m trying to forget someone whom I really wished for in my life once. What to do if people are not changing even after convincing them a billion times. Swathi, it’s ok if you don’t believe what I’m saying. But, that doesn’t mean that you have the licence to hurt me as much as you wish just like how you told your batchmates that I’m someone who always go behind women and talk bad about them. If you make anymore moves against me, I will give you back something which will mark the end of your life and career. For the time being, I’m focusing more on my career to perform well before our appraisal comes. If you wish to know more about any monuments in India, please put it in the comment box and your request would be fulfilled soon in the form of a post. I have already begun my research on a new place to write about in the next post. In a week, we can also expect the ICC to announce the schedule for the schedule of the qualifiers for the remaining regions. Kuwait and Rwanda has already been announced as the hosts of one of the groups of the Asia and Africa regions respectively. Once again, thank you for all your valuable feedback and support. It’s time to say bye for the day. Keep your minds calm and tour the ensemble of Orchha.

 

 

 

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